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Dołączył: 21 Lut 2011
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PostWysłany: Pon 8:40, 25 Kwi 2011  

Harmony based on Aristotle and Virtue Ethics Economic Review

Paper Keywords: Aristotle; ethics; economy; virtue; harmony abstracts: Aristotle and harmonious economic and Virtue Ethics involves not only the economic aspects of private ownership of property, Trade unfair and against usury, but also moral aspects of the moral education of citizens, their economic and Virtue Ethics in harmony is of important significance. 4th century BC, Aristotle was the great thinkers of ancient Greece, he has made in many areas, the extraordinary achievement, especially in the areas of ethics and political science, which also contains its economic and Virtue Ethics in harmony. First, the economy First of all, Aristotle advocated private ownership of property, public property against Plato. The following two reasons: first, the property is publicly owned will make people lazy, it will cause people's disputes, but also make people indifferent to the affairs of the city. On dispute issues, it is still part of the people caused by laziness. Imagine those who have not become lazy and actually see some people work less or not work hard work with them after they get the same amount, they can endure this situation? We can think of two results, or they become the same lazy, or turned against this inequality. The former reduces economic efficiency, which caused a dispute between people. As for people indifferent to the issue of city-state of things, Aristotle believed that Second, Aristotle believed that public property is unrealistic. Because On the contrary, if the property is private, then everyone will care about their things, because people are self-love, which both meet the human nature, but also make the economy more efficient. However, this does not mean that the more each person occupies the property as possible, but should have a degree. Because Aristotle believed that each virtue is the golden mean between two extremes,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], each extreme is a sin. Therefore, if people from the personal interests and the desire to satisfy their unlimited excessive possession of property, then they went to the one extreme is a sin, which is subject to moral condemnation. This is the way to solve economic problems of Aristotle, but also its highest level of ethics. Second, Aristotle's views on the exchange. Aristotle believed that each item has two purposes: First, the goods meet the inherent needs of people with the natural; the second is the exchange purposes. The former is legitimate,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], which is unfair. Aristotle that time, the exchange has grown to money-mediated exchange of commodities stage. The first use of goods belonging to the natural economy, so is his favor, the latter use may lead to the pursuit of money and unlimited expansion of wealth, which is unnatural, and he considered improper. Furthermore, critical of Aristotle on the trade. The main reason is: First, trade is based on the exchange, the exchange of the two sides will exchange to be profitable, and thus the ultimate goal of trade was to amass money, and there is no limit, which is in contravention of his Second, trade business practices that will lead to income inequality (as the ultimate goal of trade was to amass money), leading to social inequality, so that society will intensify the conflict between rich and poor, when such developed to irreconcilable conflicts, the dispute so that society is a turbulent situation. From an economic development point of view, this is a historical regression. This is critical of Aristotle to trade the underlying causes. Third,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], Aristotle strongly opposed to usury. Aristotle believed that way among the rich, usury is the most unnatural. Aristotle that era, most of the landlords are the debtor, while others are engaged in commercial creditors. Benefit of creditors by way of usury, not only does not increase the new wealth for society, but also more and increase the financial burden of the debtor, the creditors to loan sharks get in the way wealth is built on the basis of damage to the interests of the debtor, and therefore is poor, and immoral. Second, the moral aspects of Aristotle believed that virtue is a means to control property,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], in the premise of private property, should love to teach people, so that the property Most can be used as the public. Ethical to use a gentle hand to guide the use of the property to resolve the problem, then,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], virtue to be promoted to the higher status of the property; other hand, he is for the operation of the entire city's economy. Virtue being so important, must find a way to have this quality, the main city, and the best way is through education to achieve. Of course, not for everyone (including slaves) should be carried out moral education, but only on the moral education of citizens. This is because, first of all, slaves are not citizens can not even be considered, he said: Secondly, artisans, merchants, farmers and other laborers are not citizens. Aristotle, Plato, one will be in the ideal state of man is divided into three levels, the lowest level of the average person is just by the craftsmen, merchants, farmers constituted, they did not participate in political power just to provide subsistence for the other sectors; on the other hand, as previously stated, both the businessmen or artisans, they are all in exchange for the purpose of the monetary exchange of commodities as an intermediary stage, the exchange behavior is bound to occur and money to deal with, coupled with a lack of virtue who will make a lot of money gathered in their hands, so it is unfair. As for the farmers, Aristotle is almost equivalent to the slave, because he believes that Thus, Aristotle's Aristotle's moral education is around the In other words, the implementation of civic and moral purpose of education is to make citizens virtuous, and do anything to be moderate, so that citizens of childhood moral education from the start, and it is easy to understand. The content of moral education involves not only people's survival needs, but also spiritual and cultural needs. People's survival needs, such as learning useful things for their survival, has to do with food, clothing, housing, relevant skills; appropriate to engage in physical exercise, in order to enhance their physique. Spiritual and cultural needs, such as to study not only painting, sculpture, performance, singing and other arts, but also learn to read and write. However, Aristotle does not want to let citizens because of the usefulness of these techniques to learn them away, it made a modest request that should meet the skilled level. Moral education in this way trained, what will be but what the citizens are not proficient. It is precisely because citizens have such qualities, so it is easy for environmental and system changes.

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